Ethereum optimism 2m jay freeman

ethereum optimism 2m jay freeman

Saurik ha deciso di non sfruttare questo bug, ma disegnalarlo direttamente ad Optimismche ha poi corretto la falla. Il problema quindi ora risulta essere stato risolto, e Freeman dichiara di aver ricevuto unaricompensa da oltre due milioni di dollari.

Il bug poteva essere sfruttato su qualsiasi chain collegata ad Optimism, utilizzando il fork “OVM 2.0” di go-ethereum (l2geth).

Il pericolo del bug di Optimism

Optimism attualmente utilizza un “sequencer” centralizzato, quindi ha potuto intervenire rapidamente sia per correggere il bug sui propri nodi e sulla propria infrastruttura, sia per organizzare interventi sui progetti a valle che utilizzavano il loro codice di base (Boba e Metis).

Saurik ha denominato questo bug“Unbridled Optimism”,rivelando che affliggeva la macchina virtuale che esegue smart contract su Optimism.


Optimism has revealed that a “critical bug” in its codebase has been detected and later rectified by software engineer Jay Freeman earlier this month. While detecting the bug, it was deduced that a malicious actor could “mint” an arbitrary number of ETH tokens on any blockchain that utilises Optimism Virtual Machine (OVM).

Optimism is a Layer 2 Optimistic Rollup network designed to utilise the strong security guarantees of Ethereum (ETH) while reducing its cost and latency.

The company revealed that while analysing the chain history, it was deduced that the bug was not exploited and a fix for the issue was tested and deployed to its Kovan and Mainnet networks (including all infrastructure providers) within hours of confirmation.

Ethereum Layer-2 solution Optimism has fixed a critical software bug in one of its smart contracts on Ethereum. On February 2nd, the Optimism team was alerted byJay Freemanof a critical bug in Optimism’s fork of theEthereumGeth client software.

As per the Optimismannouncement“Funds Are Safu.”

The bug made it possible for a malicious hacker to create ETH onOptimismby “repeatedly triggering the “SELF-DESTRUCT” opcode on a contract that held an ETH balance.” Opcodes are different types of instructions that can run on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) execution environment.

Bug triggered by Etherscan employee

Analysis of Optimism’s blockchain history carried out by the Optimism team showed that the bug was not exploited. The bug seems to have been accidentally triggered on one occasion by an employee at the popular block explorer Etherscan.

Ethereum optimism 2m jay freemanii

A few days ago, renownedhacker Jay Freeman, akaSaurik, discovered adangerous bug in the nano payment protocolused byEthereum’s second layer Optimism.

Last week, I discovered (and reported) a critical bug (which has been fully patched) in @optimismPBC (a “layer 2 scaling solution” for Ethereum) that would have allowed an attacker to print arbitrary quantity of tokens, for which I won a $2,000,042 bounty. https://t.co/J6KOlU8aSW

— Jay Freeman (saurik) (@saurik) February 10, 2022

The bug on Optimism, Ethereum’s second layer

Exploiting the bug would have allowed a malicious user tocreate unlimited amounts of tokens.

Saurik decided not to exploit this bug, but toreport it directly to Optimism, which then corrected the flaw.

The reporting came with a criticism from Freeman that blockchain projects shouldn’t treat “basic issues of decentralization or security” as afterthoughts.

‘Unbridled Optimism’ Would Have Seen Anything But

Freeman described in a blog post published yesterday that he discovered the bug to be related to the bridging aspect of the Optimism protocol, the same mechanism that hit the Wormhole protocol earlier this month. Freeman dubbed the bug ‘Unbridled Optimism’ and described in no uncertain terms what it could do:

Exploiting this enables the attacker to have access to an effectively unbounded number of tokens (aka, the IOUs) on the far side of the bridge.
It is my contention that this is more dangerous than merely tricking the reserves into allowing a withdrawl (sic).


Developers from Optimism, a layer 2 scaling solution on Ethereum, have announced the identification of a “critical bug.” The developers also clarified that this bug has since been patched.

White hat & iOS jailbreak dev discover Optimism bug

The bug in question could have allowed a hacker to create Ethereum in an Optimism account. The bug was initially identified by a white hat hacker and an iOS jailbreak software developer, Jay Freeman.

Freeman stated that this big could have allowed the “attacker to replicate money on any chain using their ‘OVM 2.0’ fork of go-ethereum.” Following this discovery, Freeman was awarded a $2 million bounty, which is one of the largest ones to date.

Optimism also published a blog post stating that a network analysis had shown that the bug had not been exploited.

Developers of the Ethereum Layer 2 scaling project Optimism revealed that a “critical flaw” was discovered and subsequently fixed earlier in the month.

Jay Freeman, a Cydia jailbreak software Cydia developer and white hat hacker, discovered the bug that could have allowed hackers to make as many ‘ETH’ from an Optimism account as they wanted.

I reported a critical bug in @optimismPBC last week. This “layer 2 scaling solution for Ethereum” would have allowed an attacker print arbitrary quantities of tokens.
I was awarded a $2,000,042 bounty. https://t.co/J6KOlU8aSW Jay Freeman (saurik), (@saurik), February 10, 2022

Freeman explained in a blog post that the bug would allow an attacker to duplicate money on any chain using their “OVM 2.0” fork of go–ethereum.

The fact is that if it had been exploited, the attacker could’ve been able tomanipulate the marketsby buying huge amounts of real ETH at zero price until someone realized something was wrong. In addition, those who sold their ETH in exchange for e.g.

OETH created out of thin air by the attacker, would find themselves with a token in their portfolio of very close to zero value.

Sauriksaid:

“This makes this bug capable of economic griefing attacks, wherein once someone notices—even if it is a mere hour later!—it might be “too late” to unravel what is and what isn’t a legitimate transaction, calling into question the entire ledger”.

As such, the bug in fact did not only affect Optimism, but could havehad serious repercussions for legitimate crypto markets as well, and in particular decentralized exchanges, even if they were not directly affected.

J6KOlU8aSW

— Jay Freeman (saurik) (@saurik) February 10, 2022

According to his detailed explanation, a malicious actor could “mint” an arbitrary number of ETH tokens on any blockchain that utilizes Optimism Virtual Machine (OVM).

This could have been achieved by repeatedly triggering the SELFDESRUCT op-code on a contract with mainnet Ethers on balance. By doing so, attackers could increase their ETH holdings to infinite.

Also, Optimism forks Boba and Metis were prone to similar attacks design.

Bug fixed, $2M bounty comes to white-hat hacker

As per the statement of the Optimism team, their experts confirmed that the bug was never exploited by ‘real’ hackers: as such, all of the users’ funds are safe.

An emergence patch was released to Optimism mainnet and Kovan testnet just hours after the bug was disclosed.

Ethereum Layer-2 solution Optimism has fixed a critical software bug in one of its smart contracts on Ethereum. On February 2nd, the Optimism team was alerted byJay Freemanof a critical bug in Optimism’s fork of theEthereumGeth client software.
As per the Optimismannouncement“Funds Are Safu.”

The bug made it possible for a malicious hacker to create ETH onOptimismby “repeatedly triggering the “SELF-DESTRUCT” opcode on a contract that held an ETH balance.” Opcodes are different types of instructions that can run on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) execution environment.

Bug triggered by Etherscan employee

Analysis of Optimism’s blockchain history carried out by the Optimism team showed that the bug was not exploited. The bug seems to have been accidentally triggered on one occasion by an employee at the popular block explorer Etherscan.

On February 2, the Optimism team was alerted by Jay Freeman (saurik of Cydia and Orchid fame) to the existence of a critical bug in Optimism’s Geth fork. The bug made it possible to create ETH on Optimism by repeatedly triggering the SELFDESTRUCT opcode on a contract that held an ETH balance.” Optimism revealed on its blogsite.

Furthermore, Jay Freeman, best known for creating the Cydia software application and related software, was also awarded over $2 million.

On his blogsite he stated that he reported a critical security issue to Optimism — an “L2 scaling solution” for Ethereum — that would allow an attacker to replicate money on any chain using their “OVM 2.0” fork of go-Ethereum (which they call l2geth).

However, there was an incident with an Etherscan staffer, but “no usable excess was generated.”

“A fix for the issue was tested and deployed to Optimism’s Kovan and Mainnet networks (including all infrastructure providers) within hours of confirmation,” the team said. Moreover, the team thanked those who responded promptly to fix the bug.
It also said it had “alerted multiple vulnerable Optimism forks and bridge providers to the presence of the issue. These projects have all applied the required fix.”

Vulnerabilities ignited by protocol changes

Towards the end of last year, Optimism got rid of its whitelist to enable developers to build projects on the Optimism network.
When this whitelist was up, Optimism was only accessible to specific projects.

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