The ethereum foundation eth1 eth2blog

the ethereum foundation eth1 eth2blog

With the release of v0.10.0, we are now entering back into a smooth rhythm.

New and updated resources

With the release of v0.10.0, we once again have a very stable target both for client testnets as well as third party audits and security reviews.

To this end, we recently updated a number of onboarding resources (and created a few new ones). If you are looking to better understand the eth2 Phase 0 specs, you should definitely give these a look!

  • Phase 0 for Humans
  • Eth2 Design Rational
  • Phase 0 Design Notes
  • Validator Lifecycle doc
  • State transition and SSZ diagrams for optimized spec
  • Discussion of attestation gossip and aggregation strategies

Audits underway

Least Authority kicked off their security review this Monday and are currently digging deep.

Welcome to the first eth2 quick update of 2020! This is going to be an exciting year.


  • Release of v0.10.0 spec as stable target for multi-client testnets and security reviews
  • @paulhauner and @sigp_io team hard at work building Lighthouse
  • Relaunch of Prysm testnet, now with aggregators and mainnet configuration
  • A new proposal for an expedited merging of eth1+eth2 (aka Phase 1.5)

Release of v0.10.0 for security reviews and multi-client testnets

v0.10.0 – 404 Not Found was released last week. Read the release notes for the technical details (integration of IETF BLS, simpler eth1 caching, etc), but what does it actually mean for eth2?

v0.10.0 is the culmination of changes introduced to the Phase 0 spec after the unfreezing following deVcon as well as the integration of the new IETF BLS standards.

Altona v0.12 testnet

Ever since the release of spec version v0.12, client teams have been hard at work updating and testing their codebases in preparation for public testnets.

I’ve seen many questions from the community (on discord, reddit, etc) as to why what seemed like a relatively small update has taken a decent amount of time to complete. Although each client codebase and the associated challenges at hand are different, teams are taking v0.12very seriously.

While the update in spec was not too cumbersome, extra time has been taken to tighten up security, optimize functionality, and generally harden the clients before putting them out for what is intended to be the last semi-major version of the spec prior to launch.

The time is almost here for the first public, multi-client testnet of v0.12 – Altona with an expected launch date in the next seven days.

This kind of work is important to ensure that validating is readily accessible to all types of users.

Prysmatic’s testnet relaunches with mainnet config and aggregators

Prysmatic Labs recently restarted their public testnet now with the mainnet configuration and the attestation aggregation strategy! As discussed in prior posts, the mainnet configuration has larger caches, longer epochs, and is generally a bit more hefty than the initially used minimal config. Operating a stable testnet with this configuration and 10s of thousands of validators is an important milestone that Prysmatic is currently working through.

If you want to get your hands dirty, become a validator or join the conversation on discord.

Oh, and they’re hiring! Working remotely with Prysm is a great opportunity for an experienced dev.

We have high expectations and are enthusiastic to be working with a team of such caliber!

Another exciting piece of news is in the form of an audit and formalization of the Phase 0 cryptoeconomics led by a new EF team – Robust Incentives Group (RIG).

RIG has constructed a cadCAD environment to simulate the eth2 economic models and explore a diverse range of attacks: including timing attacks, the potential effects of different sized cartels, and more!

Check out the core of their work in the form of an easy to understand python notebook.

What’s next?

While I’ll just give you a glimpse here, I promise to dive into more detail in subsequent posts.

In parallel to ongoing audits, clients will code up to v0.10.0, integrate new BLS standards, and get some steady testnets running.

That is, the client will only calculate the state changes of the new block, and then prove that these state changes are consistent with the previous state, without calculating the complete state of each new block.

Miners and some full nodes will still need to save a complete copy of the state in order to generate block witnesses from it.Although for clients, propagating block witnesses across the entire network presents some new challenges, the potential benefits of this approach are huge.

The concept of stateless clients was first introduced by Vitalik while exploring sharding (sharding), but has since been explored in the discussion surrounding Eth1.x.

Некоторые опасаются, что если этот порог не будет достигнут, монеты застрянут в подвешенном состоянии.

Однако, по словам разработчиков Ethereum Foundation, это не так.

Обсуждается запуск Ethereum 2.0

Выступая в недавнем сообщении Ethereum Foundation «спросите меня о чем угодно» на Reddit, исследователь EF Дэнни Райан сказал, что порог можно изменить, если необходимо, чтобы гарантировать, что ETH2 действительно видит возникновение:

«Я лично считаю, что для первоначального запуска достаточно 100 000 + ETH в контракте, и что имеет смысл уменьшить порог, чтобы не оставлять ETH в подвешенном состоянии на слишком долгое время. Награды для этих первых пользователей будут очень высокими, а количество валидаций ETH, вероятно, со временем будет расти.
Планирование немедленной корректировки этой постоянной 24 ноября или 1 декабря немного агрессивно, имо.

If Eth1.x is not carried out, Ethereum will face risks in the long run. As it becomes more and more difficult to run full nodes, this network may become more and more centralized; as the network delay increases, its speed may become slower and slower; with the emergence of “state inflation”, Block verification may become more difficult.
Eventually, as transaction throughput reaches its upper limit and client improvements become increasingly difficult to achieve, both end users and core developers will be frustrated .

Our goal is to prevent Ethereum from encountering a thousand swordsmanship situation.

Мы не знаем точно, что произойдет в ближайшие пару недель, поэтому сначала нужно понаблюдать. В этой связи с потоком инженерные группы клиентов, похоже, хотят подождать до декабря и при необходимости скорректировать константу в начале января.
Это кажется разумным ».

Прочие разработки

Виталик Бутерин, основатель Ethereum, также коснулся запуска в ветке Reddit. Комментируя тестовые сети для ETH2, он сказал:

«Лично я действительно надеюсь, что когда у нас будет тестовая сеть для« eth1 внутри eth2 », она может в конечном итоге заменить некоторые из существующих тестовых сетей! Это будет одновременно служить двум целям: (i) удовлетворить потребность людей в среде тестирования Ethereum и (ii) протестировать многие части реализации слияния.

Solidity contract). Although the verification was assessed as sound, Suhabe could not recommend the bytecode as secure as long as it used the Vyper compiler.

Simultaneously, ConsenSys Diligence and Trail of Bits did investigative security reports on the Vyper compiler, finding many more bugs and raising concerns about systemic issues with the compiler codebase.

Despite these findings, Vyper is still a very promising language. The python based compiler continues to be developed and a number of contributors are looking into formalizing the language and investigating alternative compilers.

While confident in the formally verified bytecode, the issues found in the Vyper compiler created a heavy reliance on the bytecode verification.

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